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What is a Trend?

A trend is an ongoing, noticeable shift in a general and consistent direction.

Disclaimer: There are 37 Trends within the Game of Future Happens Here. These Trends are intended to spark conversations and imagination. The Trends represented within the game do not capture all the trends we should be paying attention to when doing foresight work, instead they represent different pathways that might be explored.

The nature of this game is designed to create intersections between Trends that may not have otherwise been seen as interconnected. From this point on, the rest is up to the imagination of the players. There is a chance that the information shared here is brand new to Future Happens Here players or their area of expertise, this is completely dependant on the players during each game.

No two games will be alike.

For each Trend card within Future Happens Here, there is a bit more research and data within this page to deepen scenario development. Much of the research and data collected reflect Canadian statistics where possible, while others are from a global perspective. Trend research and data span academic, government, private consulting firms and popular media. Expanded research and data provided on this website has been taken directly from the source.

A relationship between two parties centred on paid labour.

There were 560,200 job vacancies in the fourth quarter of 2020, up 51,600 (+10.2%) from the fourth quarter of 2019. The job vacancy rate—representing vacant positions as a proportion of all positions (vacant and occupied)—was 3.5% in the fourth quarter of 2020, up 0.5 percentage points from a year earlier. In all previous quarters, the job vacancy rate had ranged from 2.2% to 3.5%.

As immigrants account for a large share of employees in some key occupations within the health care and social assistance sector, the slowdown in immigration during the pandemic could have an effect on these occupations within the sector. Data from the LFS for December 2020 showed that 42.8% of nurse aides, orderlies and patient service associates were immigrants (employees, three-month averages).

Overall, employment in February 2021 was 599,000 (-3.1%) below pre-pandemic levels in February 2020, while the unemployment rate was down 1.2 percentage points to 8.2%, the lowest rate since March 2020. 

(Source: Stats Can)

Misleading information presented as the truth.

9 out of 10 Canadian adults are aware of the term ‘fake news’, but the term seems to mean several things to Canadians. The top perceived meaning of ‘fake news’ is “a story that has been deliberately fabricated by a mainstream news organization”, followed by, “a story put out by someone pretending to be a news organization”. Whatever ‘fake news’ may mean to Canadians, a vast majority do believe that credible news sources matter.

81% of news audiences believe that accuracy in journalism is key to a healthy democracy. However, a lesser 62% trust that what they read is true and not ‘fake news’ most of the time.

News is under more scrutiny than ever. External, partisan influence on the news is a concern for most. A majority of news audiences are worried that news media is failing to hold politicians and business leaders accountable for certain actions, and a minority believe that Canadian news media is truly unbiased and free from political influence most of the time.

For news organizations that stress accurate, quality journalism, editorial integrity, and free themselves from government or corporate pressures, strategies that leverage these attributes to encourage audience growth and engagement are increasingly important.

(SOURCE: ViviData

The physical, social and emotional supports  for formal and informal learning.

The world is witnessing a growing disconnect between the economic growth imperative and our planet’s finite resources; between the increased affluence of some and the well-being of many. Rapid technological change may not help pressing social needs, and despite rising connectivity, many feel lonely and voiceless.

Better education is often proposed as the solution to these diverse challenges. Examining the future of education in the context of major economic, political social and technological trends is necessary for education to support individuals to develop as persons, citizens and professionals. In a complex and quickly changing world, this might require rethinking the relationship between formal and informal learning and reimagining education content and delivery. In an increasingly digitalised world, these intertwined and evolving trends could affect the very nature of knowledge and learning itself.


The rate at which people are born and die.

After the world population increased more than 400% over the 20th century, population growth has slowed considerably: The fastest world population growth rate was already reached in the late 1960s, and it has been falling since. 

The current world population of 7.6 billion is expected to reach 8.6 billion in 2030, 9.8 billion in 2050 and 11.2 billion in 2100, according to a new United Nations report. 

The new projections include some notable findings at the country level. China (with 1.4 billion inhabitants) and India (1.3 billion inhabitants) remain the two most populous countries, comprising 19 and 18% of the total global population. In roughly seven years, or around 2024, the population of India is expected to surpass that of China.


Emotional, psychological and social well being.

In any given year, 1 in 5 Canadians experiences a mental illness.

By the time Canadians reach 40 years of age, 1 in 2 have – or have had – a mental illness.Young people aged 15 to 24 are more likely to experience mental illness and/or substance use disorders than any other age group.

39% of Ontario high-school students indicate a moderate-to-serious level of psychological distress (symptoms of anxiety and depression). A further 17% indicate a serious level of psychological distress. Men have higher rates of substance use disorders than women, while women have higher rates of mood and anxiety disorders.

Mental and physical health are linked. People with a long-term physical health condition such as chronic pain are much more likely to also experience mood disorders. Conversely, people with a mood disorder are at much higher risk of developing a long-term medical condition.

The annual economic cost of mental illness in Canada is estimated at over $50 billion per year. This includes health care costs, lost productivity, and reductions in health-related quality of life.


The physical, social and emotional infrastructure for older adults.

Older adults overwhelmingly prefer the option of aging in place as an alternative to institutional care. Nearly 80 percent of adults age 65 and older want to remain in their current residence as long as possible. In order for older adults to have this option, their living environment and service arrangements must be accommodating. 

  1. Services can become more easily accessible through certain land use policies that allow older adults to live within walking distance of these services.
  2. Increasing mobility options for older adults can reduce reliance on family members and friends for transportation.
  3. By building affordable and accessible age-friendly housing, the need for institutional care will decrease.
  4. Improving and enhancing roads to ensure safety for older adult pedestrians will ensure safety for all pedestrians in the community.


Individual behaviour and actions based on prejudice on someone’s skin colour.

For 85 per cent of the population, that Canada is home to people from different races and ethnicities betters the nation. Canadians of all regions of the country, age groups, political ideologies and ethnic backgrounds agree on this point.

More Key Findings:

  • Three-quarters of Canadians over the age of 55 disagree that Canada is a racist country, while 54 per cent of women between the ages of 18 and 34 say that it is
  • One-in-five Canadians (21%) say that they feel like they are treated as an outsider in Canada. This proportion is 17 per cent among Caucasians, 30 per cent among Indigenous respondents and 29 per cent among visible minorities.
  • One-quarter of Canadians feel “cold” toward Muslims, more than any other group asked about in the survey. Men over the age of 55 (42%) and Quebecers (37%) are among the most likely to say that.
  • Most Albertans (54%) and Saskatchewanians (57%) believe exaggerating racism is a bigger problem in Canada than not seeing racism where it exists.
  • Yet residents of Saskatchewan (44%) were the most likely to agree that Canada is a racist country. Residents of Quebec (24%) were the least likely.

(SOURCE: Angus Reid)

A cheap and moldable material.

There are increasing high levels of man-made pollution in many of the world’s seas and little actually disappears. 

By 2050 there will be more plastic than fish in the world’s oceans.Industry experts expect that by 2050 we will be producing three times as much plastic as we do today; on a volume basis, the WEF sees that by 2050 there will be more plastic than fish in the world’s oceans. 

Millions of tonnes of waste plastic finds its way into waterways and oceans every year, getting mixed up in the food chain, trapping pollutants, and choking animal life.

But three Turkish researchers believe they may have created a product which could help take the place of disposable plastic. And it comes from a sustainable, renewable source – olives.


Information pathways created by wire, radio, optical, and electromagnetic systems.

The future of the telecommunications industry is a starkly different landscape than even three years ago, making telco trends for 2022 more of telco must-haves.

Multiple factors play a huge role in the very survival of telcos within the upcoming decade, including:

  1. Changing consumer habits and preferences
  2. Cyber-security and regulatory compliance
  3. Increased competition

As telcos double-down on infrastructure, there’s also a need to align with overall business goals and priorities.

(SOURCE: The Future of Commerce

Simulated and immersive environments that mimic the real world or alternative worlds.

A sizeable majority (84%) of Canadian VR companies are focused on building VR content and/or applications. Canada’s strengths in film, game development and visual effects have made it one of the prime hubs for VR content creation and application development.


Canada, thus, has an opportunity to become a leader in VR. However, entrepreneurs should prepare themselves to tackle three key challenges:

  • Market Maturity: The VR market is in the early stages of development and there is uncertainty around how quickly consumers will adopt VR headsets and/or pay for VR experiences. VR study results indicate that Canadian VR companies expect that VR market will achieve mainstream adoption in the next 2 to 5 years. 
  • Talent: Similar to other emerging technologies, it is more likely than not that VR will face a talent crunch. It is unclear whether there will be sufficient talent to fill future demand from both large and small players. Entrepreneurs may need to implement grass roots recruitment tactics (e.g. working with universities) and provide training to source and retain talent. Moreover, a potential a VR talent crunch in Canada could fuel consolidation between Canadian VR companies. 
  • Funding: Investors are cautiously optimistic about the prospects of VR. Platforms such as Oculus have been seeding development of content and applications. However, platform funding is unsustainable. Entrepreneurs are encouraged to pursue unique use cases (e.g. B2B) with viable business models and it will be important for VR start-ups to stay nimble and prepare for at least 24 months of runway. 


Demonstrated learning and knowledge performed by machines that can mimic the natural world.

Businesses have certainly endured roadblocks and challenges in the automation journey. An AI ‘trust gap’ has prevailed amid a lack of quality data and an ensuing reluctance to hand critical business decisions over to machines. No one wants to risk ‘getting it wrong’ with AI. A lack of quality data was cited as a significant barrier to value creation by more than 60 percent of executives we surveyed in 2020 as the pandemic unfolded.

Insufficient policies and regulations governing appropriate data use have also limited success. AI has the power to revolutionize how work gets done and how decisions get made, but it needs to be deployed responsibly. For AI to be productive and accepted across the enterprise, it must be explainable, transparent and trusted. More than 50 percent of executives we surveyed in 2020 cited a lack of AI ethics guidelines as a barrier to adoption and progress.

While barriers to AI success have not been eradicated, COVID-19s massive impact has unexpectedly catapulted intelligent automation and AI to the fore. The pandemic has revealed the importance of speed in a world where ‘business as usual’ has rapidly turned to ‘business as unusual.’ The ensuing disruption and increase in remote working is propelling AI implementation to new heights.

Intelligent automation and AI are now poised to exert a game-changing impact on every aspect of 21st century enterprises – revolutionizing the future of work, data use, organizational efficiency, customer and employee experiences, risk management and more.


The extraction of dead plant and animal materials burned to create an energy source.

By September 2021, the IEA says that some 53 countries and the EU had pledged to reach net-zero emissions, accounting for around two-thirds of global CO2 emissions. Since then, Russia, Turkey and the United Arab Emirates have added their names to this list.

(The IEA says China’s 2060 net-zero pledge has “global significance”. A detailed IEA study with “leading energy experts in China” shows how the country could reach this goal, saying there is “no plausible path” to 1.5C without China. It: “Faster progress before 2030 is possible and beneficial.”)

If countries meet their net-zero and other new climate goals, as in the APS, then the IEA’s outlook suggests that fossil-fuel emissions would peak by 2025 and then start to rapidly decline (red line).

(SOURCE: We Forum

A computer-generated object created using layers and layers of materials, typically plastic, liquids or powdered grains.

DELOITTE Global predicts that sales related to 3D printing (also known as additive manufacturing) by large public companies—including enterprise 3D printers, materials, and services—will surpass US$2.7 billion in 2019 and top US$3 billion in 2020. (For context, the global manufacturing sector’s revenue as a whole totals roughly US$12 trillion annually) 

This part of the 3D printing industry will grow at about 12.5 percent in each of those years, more than double its growth rate just a few years ago.

3D printing is experiencing this inflection point likely because companies across multiple industries are increasingly using it for more than just rapid prototyping. 3D printers today are capable of printing a greater variety of materials (which mainly means more metal printing and less plastic printing, although plastic will likely still predominate); they print objects faster than they used to, and they can print larger objects (build volume). 

A steady stream of new entrants is expanding the market. 3D printing is considered “an essential ingredient” in Industry 4.0, the marriage of advanced production and operations techniques with smart digital technologies that is being heralded as the “Fourth Industrial Revolution.”

(SOURCE: Deloitte)

The science or practice of farming, growing crops, and/or domesticating animals to create a food source for people.

In 2022 the National Zero Waste Council conducted research on household food waste in Canada, and the results were astonishing.

  • 63% of the food Canadians throw away could have been eaten.
  • For the average Canadian household that amounts to 140 kilograms of wasted food per year – at a cost of more than $1,300 per year!
  • For Canada as a whole, that amounts to almost 2.3 million tonnes of edible food wasted each year, costing Canadians in excess of $20 billion!
  • All types of food are wasted, but in Canada the most prominently wasted foods by weight are:
    • Vegetables: 30%
    • Fruit: 15%
    • Leftovers: 13%
    • Bread and Bakery: 9%
    • Dairy and Eggs: 7%

(SOURCE: Love Food Hate Waste

Workers engaged in temporary work arrangements or contracts.

Gig work is becoming increasingly prevalent in Canada as platform economy technological disruption sweeps north. Gig work can allow workers the flexibility required to pursue other responsibilities, such as family obligations or educational pursuits, but this type of work often becomes a substitute for more secure employment. In response to this inherent precarity, what protections and employment policies do gig workers favour?

Our work suggests that:

  • Gig workers favour government policy that will increase the amount of workplace protections for them, including paid breaks, the right to unionize and recourse for wrongful dismissal;
  • Half of gig workers surveyed in Canada indicate they prefer gig work because of the flexibility it offers;
  • Across the board, gig workers are overwhelmingly in favour of government action to stabilize gig work.


A person who organizes, operates, and assumes the risk for a business venture.

Canada is undergoing an entrepreneurial resurgence – In 2018, about 44,700 Canadians started a business, the highest number in a decade. This points to a resurgence in new entrepreneurial activity, which has increased in three of the last four years. – The increase in new entrepreneurial activity is changing the face of entrepreneurship in Canada. 

Younger Canadians are jumping into entrepreneurship in large numbers, while baby boomers are choosing entrepreneurship late in their careers. At the same time, more newcomers, women and highly educated Canadians are turning to entrepreneurship. – Today, we estimate that roughly 28% of all entrepreneurs are women, while 40 years ago it was 11%. There were 241,000 women entrepreneurs in Canada in 2018, up from 49,000 in 1976. If the current trend continues, the numbers of new female and male entrepreneurs should reach parity by 2030.


Individual access to physical assets or income opportunities.

Most people in the world live in poverty. 85% of the world live on less than $30 per day, two-thirds live on less than $10 per day, and every tenth person lives on less than $1.90 per day. In each of these statistics price differences between countries are taken into account to adjust for the purchasing power in each country.

Global poverty is one of the very worst problems that the world faces today. The poorest in the world are often hungry, have much less access to education, regularly have no light at night, and suffer from much poorer health. To make progress against poverty is therefore one of the most urgent global goals.

During the first half of the last century, the growth of the world population caused the absolute number of extremely poor people in the world to increase, even though the share of people in extreme poverty was going down. After around 1970, the decrease in poverty rates became so steep that the absolute number of people living in extreme poverty started falling as well. This trend of decreasing poverty—both in absolute numbers and as a share of the world population—has been a constant during the last three decades. But as we highlight in the first section of this entry it is unfortunately not what we can expect for the coming decade. It is the fact that still almost every tenth person lives in extreme poverty and the slowing progress against extreme poverty that motivates this entry.

(SOURCE:Our World In Data

An economic asset that only exists in digital form.

The cryptocurrency world took off last year. The total market capitalization of all cryptocurrencies now exceeds $0.9 trillion. And it’s estimated that there are over 300 million crypto users worldwide.

Financial institutions and large corporations have traditionally viewed the cryptocurrency ecosystem with skepticism. Today, many institutions are actively allocating capital to this area.

Nowhere has this become more apparent than the asset management industry. By the end of 2020, $15 billion of institutional assets under management had been allocated to the crypto asset class. 

(SOURCE: Exploding Topics)

The effort or inclination to increase the well-being of humankind, as by charitable aid or donations.

There is a steady decline in the number of Canadians that donate to charities, and an increased reliance on a smaller group of aging donors to give. Meanwhile, over the last two years, charities saw a decline in overall giving due to pressures of the pandemic and now this is expected to worsen due to the troubling rise in inflation. This is all happening while many charities have faced a drastic rise in demand that they are struggling to keep up with.

Charities are a key part of Canada’s social safety net, providing food, shelter, and life-saving aid when existing programs fall short. Charities also improve the quality of life for all Canadians through youth programs, arts and cultural festivals, protecting our parks and wildlife, supporting senior citizens, providing mental health crisis counselling, and so much more.

The “giving gap” is a trend whereby older Canadians are giving financially at twice the rate of younger Canadians, which indicates that charities will face a major shortfall in funding when older donors are no longer able to give. 

(SOURCE: Canada Helps)

The physical spaces where individuals live.

In 2023 and 2024, the growth in prices will moderate with sales and starts activity remaining above long-run averages. Homeownership affordability will decline, with the growth in prices expected to outpace income growth. Rental affordability is also set to decline from increasing rental demand and low stocks of rental housing. The growth in prices will likely continue to be led by markets with already low listings, including Vancouver, Toronto, and Montreal. Supply constraints on construction will continue to impact major centres and especially Vancouver and Toronto, highlighting the central role of housing supply in determining affordability.

The outlook is subject to important risks, including:

  • Slower growth in housing supply leading to faster price growth;
  • Stronger inflation pressures and interest rate increases leading to weaker starts and sales levels, and slower price growth, and;
  • Resurgent infection rates and restrictions also weakening demand and price growth.


General increase in the prices of goods and services in an economy.

The rate of consumer inflation continued to rise, reaching 8.1% year over year in June, following a 7.7% gain in May. The increase was the largest yearly change since January 1983. The acceleration in June was mainly due to higher prices for gasoline, however, price increases remained broad-based with seven of eight major components rising by 3% or more.

Excluding gasoline, the CPI rose 6.5% year over year in June, following a 6.3% increase in May.

On a monthly basis, the CPI rose 0.7% in June, following a 1.4% increase in May. On a seasonally adjusted monthly basis, the CPI was up 0.6%.

On average, prices rose faster than hourly wages, which increased 5.2% in the 12 months to June, based on data from the Labour Force Survey.

(SOURCE: StatsCan)

Drinking water is water that is used in drink or food preparation; potable water is water that is safe to be used as drinking water.

Globally, by 2015, 89% of people had access to water from a source that is suitable for drinking – called improved water source.In sub-Saharan Africa, access to potable water ranged from 40% to 80% of the population. 

Nearly 4.2 billion people worldwide had access to tap water, while another 2.4 billion had access to wells or public taps.The World Health Organization considers access to safe drinking-water a basic human right.

About 1 to 2 billion people lack safe drinking water. Water can carry vectors of disease. More people die from unsafe water than from war, then-U.N. secretary-general Ban Ki-moon said in 2010. Third world countries are most affected by lack of water, flooding, and water quality. Up to 80 percent of illnesses in developing countries are the direct result of inadequate water and sanitation.

(SOURCE: Wikipedia)

Air pollution is the contamination of air due to the presence of substances in the atmosphere that are harmful to the health of humans and other living beings, or cause damage to the climate or to materials.

Air pollution can cause diseases, allergies, and even death to humans; it can also cause harm to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, and may damage the natural environment (for example, climate change, ozone depletion or habitat degradation) or built environment (for example, acid rain). Air pollution can be caused by both human activities and natural phenomena.

Overall, air pollution causes the deaths of around 7 million people worldwide each year, or a global mean loss of life expectancy (LLE) of 2.9 years, and is the world’s largest single environmental health risk, which has not shown significant progress since at least 2015.

(SOURCE: Wikipedia

Drier than normal moisture conditions typically caused by a shortage of precipitation.

Drought threatens Canada’s forests by limiting the available water that trees need to survive. When water is limited, trees become weakened. Weakened trees cannot grow at a normal rate, may not be able to regenerate, or could die. It is also difficult for trees to defend themselves against insects and diseases as they become stressed. 

Several regions of Canada experienced substantial droughts between 1951 and 2010, but with significant variability between decades. However, during the first decade of the 21st century (2001–2010), exceptional droughts were observed across the country – for example, the 2001–2002 drought in the Prairies, caused abnormally high aspen mortality.

Similar trends have been reported in forests around the world. With droughts expected to become more frequent and severe in most of Canada’s forests, there are growing concerns about the impact of drought on forest distribution, tree health and regeneration success.

Increases in drought could have far-reaching impacts on Canada’s forests, both directly, through impacts on tree growth and survival, and indirectly, through drought-related increases in the frequency of disturbances such as fire and insect outbreaks.


An insect, often confused for a wasp.

The global Canada black soldier fly market is expected to witness moderate growth during the forecast period between 2021 and 2031.

The Canada Food Inspection Agency approved the deployment of insects as an ingredient in feeds for selective poultry species. In 2019, the organization approved the deployment of ‘Oreka Solutions’ black soldier fly larvae which comprise protein-enhancing features in feed for trout, poultry, and salmonids.

The decision has proven beneficial in helping increase demand for black soldier fly for the production of different agricultural products, thereby in the growth of the overall market.

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic negatively affected the growth in the overall Canada black soldier fly market. With the imposition of social distancing regulations and lockdowns in different parts of the country, feed production units were forced to shut down temporarily or permanently.

This affected the demand for black soldier fly in Canada and led to reduced revenue-generating opportunities for leading market players. 

(SOURCE: Digital Journal

Group of warm-blooded vertebrates typically with feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

Birds are sensitive to environmental changes, such as habitat loss and pollution, and can be used as an indicator of ecosystem health. While bird populations fluctuate naturally, rapid declines can signal the need for urgent conservation action. The indicator tracks the average population trends of various groups of native Canadian bird species.

From 1970 to 2016, the trends in bird species groups varied:

  • waterfowl and birds of prey increased by 150% and 110%, respectively
  • shorebirds, grassland birds and aerial insectivores decreased by 40%, 57% and 59%, respectively
  • wetland birds, seabirds, forest birds and all other birds showed little to moderate change

Bird populations fluctuate naturally in response to ecological conditions, but negative changes in bird populations reflect the overall effect of many different factors. Some of these factors include habitat loss and disturbance, pollution, agricultural impacts, climate change, invasive species, unsustainable hunting and declines in insects, as well as other sources of direct mortality, such as collisions with windows and cat predation. These factors act both here in Canada and internationally, in countries where Canadian birds migrate and spend the winter.

From 1970 to 2016, of the 342 bird species with adequate monitoring data,

  • 38% (131 species) had increasing populations
  • 24% (83 species) showed little to moderate change
  • 37% (128 species) had decreasing populations

(SOURCE: Canada)  

Unplanned, uncontrolled and unpredictable fire in an area of combustible vegetation starting in rural and urban areas.

In recent years, media coverage and academic discussions of extreme fire activity have fostered the belief among some Canadians that the country is suffering from a rising trend of destruction from forest fires. During the period of reliable data from 1959 to 2019, it is true that there has been a rising trend in fire activity calculated over the entire six decades. However, a closer inspection of the data show that there was a sharp increase in destruction caused by forest fires in the first half of this period, and a general decline in the second half. The all-time peak of fire activity in 1989 involved some 7.6 million hectares burned, while the most recent national data show only 1.8 million hectares burned in 2019.

Canadian policy makers should be rightly concerned about any surge in forest fires. However, would-be solutions should line up with the facts, and be based on a diagnosis that accounts for the fact that an increase in forest fires has so far only hit a few jurisdictions, while nationally, destruction from forest fires in recent years has not been nearly as bad as it was during the late 1980s and the mid-1990s.

(SOURCE: Fraser Institute)

Animals and plants that grow independently of people, usually in natural conditions.

The Living Planet Report 2022 is a comprehensive study of trends in global biodiversity and the health of the planet. This flagship WWF publication reveals an average decline of 69% in species populations since 1970. While conservation efforts are helping, urgent action is required if we are to reverse nature loss.

The evidence is unequivocal—we are living through the dual crises of biodiversity loss and climate change driven by the unsustainable use of our planet’s resources. Scientists are clear: unless we stop treating these emergencies as two separate issues neither problem will be addressed effectively.

Climate change and biodiversity loss are not only environmental issues, but economic, development, security, social, moral, and ethical issues too. Industrialized countries are responsible for most environmental degradation but it is developing nations that are disproportionately impacted by biodiversity loss. We all have a role to play in building a nature-positive society that safeguards the planet for the good health of everyone.

(SOURCE: Living Planet)

The amount of edible food that ends up in the compost or landfill.

A number of global trends are influencing food security, poverty, and the overall sustainability of food and agricultural systems.

By 2050 we will need to produce 70 percent more food. Roughly 800 million people worldwide suffer from hunger. And under a business-as-usual scenario, 8 percent of the world’s population (or 650 million) will still be undernourished by 2030. The reality is that very little innovation has taken place in the industry of late—in any case, nothing to indicate that food scarcity and hunger will not be an issue in the coming decades.

Governments can play a key part in solving the food scarcity issue. They need to take on a broader and more prominent role than their traditional regulatory and facilitating function

By challenging the traditional legacy model and pursuing such a program, governments can:

  • Ensure food security and reduce dependency on imports
  • Become a net exporter not only of products but also IP and new solutions
  • Increase productivity and support the shift towards an innovation- and knowledge-based economy 

(SOURCE: Oliver Wyman)

The number of different species represented in a given area.

“Maintaining biodiversity has already been shown to have many benefits — more diverse ecosystems are considered to be more stable and have a greater capacity to sequester carbon, for example,” Chen says. 

“Now we’ve established that improving soil phosphorus availability is an additional benefit that helps sustain our current and future productivity of croplands, forests and other types of terrestrial ecosystems.”

The study found that compared with ecosystems with a single plant species or crop type, land with plant mixtures showed more benefits of phosphorus. The total amount of the nutrient in the surface soil, where most of the roots grow, was 6.8 per cent higher, the enzyme activity that makes phosphorus available to plants was 8.5 per cent higher and the amount of phosphorus plants could take up was 4.6 per cent higher.

Encouraging plant diversity can also provide economic benefits to crop producers, Chen adds. Preserving shelterbelts and windrows around their fields, and growing more than one crop at the same time on the same piece of land, can increase soil phosphorus and consequently reduce the amount of phosphorus fertilizer they need to buy.

(SOURCE: U Alberta)

Distribution of wealth and access to income. 

In March 2020, a sequence of unprecedented government interventions—including the closure of non-essential businesses, travel restrictions, and public health measures directing Canadians to limit public interactions—was introduced to curb the spread of COVID-19. These interventions resulted in a dramatic slowdown in economic activity—they dealt a sudden shock to the Canadian labour market and income from market sources. Altogether, the median market income of Canadian families and unattached individuals went from $57,600 in 2019 to $55,700 in 2020, a decrease of 3.3%.

About 2.4 million Canadians, or 6.4% of the population, lived below Canada’s Official Poverty Line in 2020, down from 10.3% in 2019. The 3.9 percentage point decrease in the poverty rate represented about 1.4 million fewer Canadians in poverty. Although the national poverty rate for years before 2020 was generally trending downward, the large decrease observed from 2019 to 2020 was mostly attributable to the increases in government transfers.

In 2020, the poverty rate for all family types decreased compared with 2019. For example, both senior and non-senior couples saw large declines in their poverty rates. Non-senior couples in Canada saw their poverty rate almost cut in half, from 7.9% in 2019 to 4.3% in 2020. There was also a decrease in the poverty rate for senior couples in Canada, from 2.6% in 2019 to 1.4% in 2020.

(SOURCE: StatsCan)

Gender divide within the criminal system.

One way that society groups people is by gender. A long history of research shows that women and men tend to be impacted differently by crime, and interact differently with the CJS. Women are more likely than men to experience gender-based violence—violence targeted at them because of their gender, gender expression, gender identity or perceived gender. Certain violent crimes, including sexual assault, intimate partner violence, and intimate partner homicides, are particularly gendered, with women making up the vast majority of victims/survivors and men overwhelmingly the perpetrators. 

Recent findings from Statistics Canada have also shown that transgender and non-binary individuals are more likely to experience violent victimization in their lifetime (from the age of 15) (59%) compared with cisgender people (37%). Sexual minority people who self-identify as Indigenous also experience higher prevalence of physical (73%) and sexual assault (65%) in their lifetime compared with non-Indigenous sexual minorities (45% and 37%, respectively).

(SOURCE: Justice)  

The prevention, treatment and management of illness provided by medical professionals.

By 2040, health care as we know it today will no longer exist. There will be a fundamental shift from “health care” to “health.” And while disease will never be completely eliminated, through science, data, and technology, we will be able to identify it earlier, intervene proactively, and better understand its progression to help consumers more effectively and actively sustain their well-being. The future will be focused on wellness and managed by companies that assume new roles to drive value in the transformed health ecosystem.

Driven by greater data connectivity; interoperable and open, secure platforms; and increasing consumer engagement, 10 archetypes are likely to emerge and will replace and redefine today’s traditional life sciences and health care roles to power the future of health. 

The 10 archetypes will fall into three distinct, but interconnected, categories:

  • Data and platforms: These archetypes will be the foundational infrastructure that form the backbone of tomorrow’s health ecosystem. They will generate the insights for decision making. Everything else will build off of the data and platforms that underpin consumer-driven health.
  • Well-being and care delivery: These archetypes will be the most health-focused of the three groupings, made up of care facilities and health communities—both virtual and physical, and will provide consumer-centric delivery of products, care, wellness and well-being.
  • Care enablement: These archetypes will be connectors, financers, and regulators that help make the industry’s “engine” run.

(Source: Deloitte

International movement of people to a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle as permanent residents or naturalized citizens.

According to the reference scenario, the Canadian population would reach 47.7 million in 2041, and 25.0 million of them would be immigrants or children of immigrants born in Canada, accounting for 52.4% of the total population. In 2016, this population was 14.4 million and accounted for 40.0% of the total Canadian population.

The projected percentage in 2041 could range from 49.8% to 54.3% depending on the projection scenario. Several scenarios are proposed to reflect uncertainty about the future evolution of demographic components and to measure the sensitivity of projections to certain factors.

The concept of “racialized” population is derived directly from the “visible minority group” variable and therefore refers to the persons belonging to a visible minority group (for more information, see the Note to readers). This information has been collected by Statistics Canada since the 1996 Census of Population to implement the Employment Equity Act, which aims to address discrimination in the hiring of certain groups (women, Indigenous peoples, persons with disabilities, and members of a racialized group).

Since 1996, the racialized population in Canada has been steadily increasing. In 2016, it consisted of 8.0 million people. By 2041, the racialized population could reach 16.4 million to 22.3 million people depending on the projection scenario. The racialized population could therefore account for 38.2% to 43.0% of the Canadian population. In 2016, this proportion was 22.2%.

(SOURCE: StatCan)

The total number of eligible voters who participated in any given election.

Three-quarters (76%) of eligible Canadians reported voting in the 2021 federal election, down 1 percentage point from the 2019 election.

Among eligible youth aged 18 to 24, 66% cast a ballot in the 2021 federal election, down 2 percentage points compared with 2019. This decline marks a return to the 2015 level, but youth turnout remained well above the rate observed in 2011 (55%).

Declines of 2 percentage points were also observed among 35- to 54-year-olds and people aged 65 to 74. A smaller drop of 1 percentage point was seen among people aged 55 to 64.

 Among eligible Canadians who did not vote in 2021, the most common reason for not casting a ballot was not being interested in politics (32%). Similar to 2019, this was the most commonly cited reason in the majority of age groups, with two exceptions: illness or disability (39%) was the most reported reason among people aged 75 and older, and being too busy (34%) was most prevalent among those aged 35 to 44.

Overall, citing political issues (including not being interested in politics) as a reason for not voting was more common among men (41%) than among women (37%).

Not voting because of obligations related to everyday life made up 43% of all reasons reported by non-voters. This included being too busy (24%), having an illness or disability (11%), or being out of town (9%).

(SOURCE: StatCan)

Statistics and evidence collected based on the social construct of race.

Race-based data can help to address racial and biased inequalities within and across systems, while ethnicity data is best suited to address inequities in service and programming. The biggest challenge in race-based data collection is how to collect discrete, quantifiable data about a variable that is neither quantifiable nor discrete. 

Racial categories are often context-dependent and can be easily conflated with measures like ethnicity. Survey participants often struggle to distinguish their own racial identity and may give completely different responses depending on where, when, and how the question is posed. An individual’s perception of racial identity is also not fixed, which can affect the ability to reproduce data results over time. Furthermore, the tension between prioritizing personal racial identity or public racial identification is pervasive, as there can be a wide disparity between the two measures. 

Canada is heralded as a diverse country. The 2016 federal census reported a total population of 35,151,728 citizens. Of those, 4.9% self-identified as “Aboriginal,” up from 3.8% in 2006; and 22.3% selfidentified as a “visible minority” (that is, non-white and non-Aboriginal), up from 16.2% in 2006. 

These are factors that play an important part in understanding the direction that the government must take to comprehend the lived realities of the diverse communities that call this land home. 

Currently, race-based data is largely collected in only a few key systems, including health care, justice, and education. 

Unfortunately, the needs for rigorous data in our current social climate are far greater than the inadequate collection strategies that result in limited data availability. 

(SOURCE: Edmonton Social Planning)

The act of seeking repair for harm caused.

The Truth and Reconciliation Commission was formed as a means of reckoning with the devastating legacy of forced assimilation and abuse left by the residential school system. 

From 2008 to 2014, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission heard stories from thousands of residential school survivors. In June 2015, the commission released a report based on those hearings. From that came the 94 Calls to Action: individual instructions to guide governments, communities and faith groups down the road to reconciliation. 

In researching the progress of each Call to Action, CBC reached out to relevant governments, faith groups, professional and community organisations for comment. We fact-checked each response with invested stakeholders. We also cross-referenced federal funding announcements with actual and past financial expenditures. We also drew information from past and current CBC stories.

Beyond 94 measures the progress of the Calls to Action based on the following;

  • “Not started” refers to Calls to Action in which no action plan has been developed and/or no funds have been committed, to implement the Call to Action.
  • “In Progress — Projects proposed” refers to Calls to Action in which the relevant parties involved have either committed to an action plan or funding, but not yet followed through with it.
  • “In Progress — Projects underway” refers to Calls to Action in which the relevant parties involved are actively working towards implementing that call, with both a timeline and (where needed) the funding to make it happen.
  • “Complete” refers to Calls to Action which have been fully implemented.

(SOURCE: News Interactives

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